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Table 4 Summary of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) comparing the experimental and control groups pre-test in reading aloud errors

From: The effectiveness of instructional software in reading comprehension skills and reading aloud of Omani fourth basic schools’ students

Source Read. Aloud Items SS MS F (1, 103) p
Group Additions 25.40 25.40 1.52 0.220
Deletions 71.11 71.11 2.69 0.104
Inversions 10.62 10.62 0.30 0.585
Repetitions 13.59 13.59 1.03 0.313
Intermittent reading 418.44 418.44 7.82 0.006
Grammar error 92.87 92.87 1.68 0.198
Morphological error 230.63 230.63 10.17 0.002
Erroneous stop 3.20 3.20 0.18 0.674
Reading aloud 1454.15 1454.15 1.90 0.171
Error Additions 1754.45 16.71   
Deletions 2773.43 26.41   
Inversions 3726.54 35.49   
Repetitions 1388.27 13.22   
Intermittent reading 5618.31 53.51   
Grammar error 5815.19 55.38   
Morphological error 2380.36 22.67   
Erroneous stop 1885.77 17.96   
Reading aloud 80189.01 763.71