Skip to main content

Table 15 Summary of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) of experimental group treatment in reading aloud

From: The effectiveness of instructional software in reading comprehension skills and reading aloud of Omani fourth basic schools’ students

Source Read. Aloud items SS MS F (51,1) p Effect size
Group Additions 1912.65 1912.65 234.29 <0.001 0.821
Deletions 1198.16 1198.16 129.10 <0.001 0.717
Inversions 1485.09 1485.09 110.83 <0.001 0.685
Repetitions 1267.01 1267.01 98.28 <0.001 0.658
Intermittent reading 2318.09 2318.09 106.56 <0.001 0.676
Grammar error 13,869.24 13,869.24 271.71 <0.001 0.842
Morphological error 549.24 549.24 88.29 <0.001 0.634
Erroneous stop 882.78 882.78 73.60 <0.001 0.591
Reading aloud 138,043.47 138,043.47 341.63 <0.001 0.870
Error Additions 416.35 8.16    
Deletions 473.34 9.28    
Inversions 683.41 13.40    
Repetitions 657.49 12.89    
Intermittent reading 1109.41 21.75    
Grammar error 2603.26 51.04    
Morphological error 317.26 6.22    
Erroneous stop 611.72 12.00    
Reading aloud 20,608.03 404.08