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Table 13 Summary of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) of experimental group treatment in reading comprehension

From: The effectiveness of instructional software in reading comprehension skills and reading aloud of Omani fourth basic schools’ students

Source Read. Comp. Items SS MS F (51,1) p Effect size
Group Understand content 2.57 2.57 32.34 <0.001 0.39
Realize the temporal and locative arrangement 3.03 3.03 22.67 <0.001 0.31
Distinguish between compact and pronounced article ‘lam’ 0.99 0.99 15.37 <0.001 0.23
Recognize end of words extension ‘med’ and formation ‘tanween’ 4.09 4.09 99.10 <0.001 0.66
Differentiate between folded and normal letter ‘Taa’ 1.69 1.69 23.55 <0.001 0.32
Reading comprehension 2.45 2.45 166.92 <0.001 0.77
Error Understand content 4.05 0.08    
Realize the temporal and locative arrangement 6.81 0.13    
Distinguish between compact and pronounced article ‘lam’ 3.30 0.07    
Recognize end of words extension ‘med’ and formation ‘tanween’ 2.11 0.04    
Differentiate between folded and normal letter ‘Taa’ 3.66 0.07    
Reading comprehension 0.75 0.02