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Table 9 Summary of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) comparing the experimental and control groups post-test in reading aloud

From: The effectiveness of instructional software in reading comprehension skills and reading aloud of Omani fourth basic schools’ students

Source Read. Aloud items SS MS F (1, 103) p Effect size
Group Additions 7.35 7.35 1.70 0.195
Deletions 324.34 324.34 7.76 0.006 0.07
Inversions 1.32 1.32 0.34 0.562
Repetitions 2.00 2.00 0.40 0.528
Intermittent reading 49.82 49.82 3.34 0.071
Grammar error 31.35 31.35 0.94 0.333
Morphological error 43.06 43.06 14.99 <0.001 0.13
Erroneous stop 52.32 52.32 10.01 0.002 0.09
Reading aloud 1096.62 1096.62 4.38 0.039 0.04
Error Additions 445.17 4.32    
Deletions 4307.79 41.82    
Inversions 401.19 3.90    
Repetitions 512.19 4.97    
Intermittent reading 1537.17 14.92    
Grammar error 3419.16 33.20    
Morphological error 295.99 2.87    
Erroneous stop 538.31 5.23    
Reading aloud 25780.01 250.29